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Abbreviations Starting with Letter A

A&I: Abstracting and Indexing (A&I) is a category of database that provides abstract and citations of the literature of a discipline or subject area.

a.k.a.: Also Known As (a.k.a.) used to introduce pseudonyms, aliases, nicknames, working names, legalized names, pen names, maiden names, titles, etc.

AA Code: Anglo-American Code (AA Code) was published in 1908 as the first successful product of Birtish and American cooperation and was based on various 19th century code. The AA Code was the result of collaboration between The American Library Association (ALA) and the Library Association (LA) and it was published in an American edition (Catalog Rules, Author and Title Entries) and a British edition (Cataloguing Rules, Author and Title Entries). 2007-J-P-II-Q-31, 2007-D-P-II-Q-35, 2015-D-P-III-Q-42

AACR 1: Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules 1 (AACR 1) is a detailed set of standardized rules for cataloguing various types of library materials published in 1967 in two versions-a North American text and a British text under the initiative of American Library Association (ALA),  Library Association (LA) and Canadian Library Association (CLA). 2010-D-P-II-Q-39, 2011-D-P-II-Q-35, 2012-D-P-II-Q-41, 2015-D-P-III-Q-42

AACR 2: Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules 2 (AACR 2) is revised version of AACR based on a reconciliation of the British and North American texts of the 1967 edition and published jointly by the American Library Association, the Canadian Library Association, and the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals in the year 1978. 2007-J-P-II-Q-31, 2007-D-P-II-Q-35, 2010-D-P-II-Q-39

AALL: American Association of Law Libraries (AALL) is a nonprofit educational organization with over 5,000 members nationwide. It was established in 1906 with the initiative of A. J. Small and its headquarters is in Chicago, United States.

AASL: American Association of School Librarians (AASL) established in 1951, is a division of the American Library Association (ALA).

ABAA: Antiquarian Booksellers' Association of America (ABAA) is an organization in the United States for dealers in rare and antiquarian books. It was established in 1949 and its headquarters is in New York, United States.

ACRL: The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) is a professional association of academic librarians and other interested individuals and a division of the American Library Association (ALA). ACRL is the largest division of American Library Association (ALA) with its headquarters in Chicago, IL. 2012-D-P-III-Q-29

Ad hoc: Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning "for this". In English, it generally used to indicate that something was created or exists for the particular purpose in view at the moment and usually dissolved once the need has been met.

ADINET: Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) was established in 1994 in Gujarat with an initial grant for a few years from National Information System for Science and Technology (NISSAT), Department of Science and Industrial Research, Government of India, New Delhi. 2013-D-P-III-Q-38

ADONIS: Article Delivery on Network Information System (ADOLIS) was a trial full text document delivery service launched in 1980 after Elsevier Science Publishers and the then British Library Lending Division (BLLD) undertook a major survey to determine what articles were being requested and in what volume. 2006-J-P-II-Q-14

AECT: Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is an academic and professional association that promotes educational uses of technology. AECT's headquarters moved from Washington, DC in 1999 for financial reasons to Bloomington, Indiana.

AGRI-net: Agricultural Networking (AGRI-net) is an Agri-science Chemical Biology network which aims to stimulate the development and facilitate the translation of novel tools and technologies to key end-users in the Agri-sciences which was established in 1982. AGRI-net has been funded via a joint call from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC) and the Medical Research Council (MRC).

AGRINET: Agriculture Information Network (AGRINET) was initiated as a sub-network of Sri Lanka Scientific & Technical Information Network (SLSTINET) in 1982 with the prime objective of resource sharing among agricultural libraries in Sri Lanka.

AGRIS: International System for Agricultural Science and Technology (AGRIS) is a global public domain database with more than 8 million structured bibliographical records on agricultural science and technology and is maintained by CIARD and administered from Rome, Italy. AGRIS was designed in the year 1950 and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome is working as the coordinating Centre of AGRIS. 2008-J-P-II-Q-7, 2005-J-P-II-Q-32, 2007-J-P-II-Q-42, 2007-D-P-II-Q-44, 2012-D-P-II-Q-34, 2013-D-P-III-Q-42

AICTE: All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is the statutory body and a national-level council for technical education, under Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, established in November 1945 first as an advisory body and later on in 1987 given statutory status by an Act of Parliament. AICTE headquarters is in New Delhi.

AIDA: Attention, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA) is a historical model that describes a common list of events that may occur when a consumer engages with an advertisement. The term and approach are commonly attributed to American advertising and sales pioneer, Elias St. Elmo Lewis. 2016-J-P-II-Q-30

AIFF: Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) is an audio file format standard used for storing sound data for personal computers and other electronic audio devices. The format was developed by Apple Inc. in 1988 based on Electronic Arts' Interchange File Format (IFF) and is most commonly used on Apple Macintosh computer systems. The file extension for the standard AIFF format is .aiff or .aif. 2016-J-P-II-Q-25

AIIP: Association of Independent Information Professionals (AIIP) is a virtual organization of entrepreneurs owning professional firms that provide information-related services, including online and manual information retrieval and research, document delivery, database design, library support, consulting, writing, and publishing founded in 1987 with its head office in United Plaza Blvd Baton Rouge, LA.

ALA Code: American Library Association (ALA) Code is the Cataloging Rules for Author and Title Entries which was published in 1949 by the American Library Association and are based on the American edition of Anglo-American Code (AA Code) published in 1908. So, it can be said as the second edition of American edition (Catalog Rules, Author and Title Entries) of Anglo-American Code (AA Code). 2007-D-P-II-Q-35, 2010-D-P-II-Q-39, 2011-D-P-II-Q-35, 2015-D-P-III-Q-42

ALA: The American Library Association (ALA) is the oldest and largest library association in the world, founded on October 6, 1876 during the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia with its headquarters in Chicago, Illinois, United States. 2008-J-P-II-Q-2, 2005-J-P-II-Q-43, 2007-J-P-II-Q-20, 2008-D-P-II-Q-32, 2009-J-P-II-Q-37, 2009-D-P-II-Q-40, 2010-J-P-II-Q-35, 2011-J-P-II-Q-33, 2011-D-P-II-Q-43, 2012-J-P-II-Q-29, 2012-D-P-III-Q-62, 2013-D-P-II-Q-24, 2014-J-P-II-Q-28, 2014-D-P-III-Q-62

ALP: Action for Development through Libraries Programme (ALP) is a programme of International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to works in collaboration with libraries, library associations, partner organisations and library professionals in developing and emerging countries to deliver relevant, sustainable activities for equitable access to information and better library communities. The ALP Programme was launched in 1984 at the IFLA Conference in Nairobi, Kenya.

ANOVA: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models used to analyze the differences among group means and their associated procedures (such as "variation" among and between groups), developed by statistician and evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher and published in 1921. 2015-D-P-II-Q-36

ANSI: The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States formed on May 14, 1918 with its headquarters in Washington, D.C., United States. 2012-J-P-III-Q-31

APA: The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States formed in July 1892 with its headquarters in Washington, D.C., United States. 2013-S-P-II-Q-37

API: Application Programming Interface (API) is a software-to-software interface that enables communication to occur seamlessly between Web-based application programs, with no indication to the user that software functions are being transferred from one application to another. 2013-S-P-III-Q-2

APIN: Asia and Pacific Information Network (APIN) is the result of the merger of the Regional Network for the Exchange of Information and Experiences in Science and Technology in Asia and the Pacific (ASTINFO), the Regional Informatics Network for Southeast Asia and the Pacific (RINSEAP) and the Regional Informatics Network for South and Central Asia (RINSCA).

APLA: The Atlantic Provinces Library Association (APLA) previously known as "Maritime Library Association" and changed to "Atlantic Provinces Library Association" (APLA) in 1957 when Newfoundland became a member. The first Maritime Library Association was founded April 17, 1918 at Acadia University. 2007-J-P-II-Q-34

APUPA: Alien- Penumbral- Umbral- Penumbral- Alien (APUPA) pattern is a method of classifying books and documents based on their relevance to the searcher which was introduced by Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. 2016-J-P-II-Q-38

ARL: Association of Research Libraries (ARL) is a nonprofit organization of the largest research and university libraries in the US and Canada. It was established on 29 December, 1932 in Chicago, Illinois and its headquarters is in Washington, D.C.

ARLIS/ANZ: Arts Libraries Society / Australia and New Zealand (ARLIS/ANZ) was established in December 1975 to promote arts librarianship and co-operate with other national and international organisations in the sector.

ARMA International: Association of Records Managers and Administrators International (ARMA International) formerly the Association of Records Managers and Administrators is an international non-profit professional association for records and information managers and related industry practitioners and vendors established in the year 1955. The headquarters for ARMA International are in Overland Park, Kansas.

ARPA: Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense created in February 1958 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower with its headquarters in Arlington, Virginia, U.S..  ARPA is presently known as Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) which is responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. 2013-S-P-II-Q-36

ARPANET: The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP, initially funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense in 1969. ARPANET become the the technical foundation of the Internet and now known as National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET). 2013-S-P-II-Q-36

ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is the binary code consists of seven information bits and one parity bit for error checking built into most minicomputers and all personal computers to represent in digital format the uppercase and lowercase letters of the Latin script, numerals, and special characters until December 2007, when it was surpassed by UTF-8, which is fully backward compatible to ASCII.

ASIS&T: Association for Information Science and Technology (ASIS&T) is a non-profit membership organization for information professionals and was previously known as the American Society for Information Science and Technology. The association was founded on 13 March 1937 as the American Documentation Institute (ADI) by Watson Davis, Atherton Seidell, and others and situated at Silver Spring, Maryland.

ASK Model: Anomalous State of Knowledge (ASK) model is put forwarded by Nicholas J. Belkin in "Anomalous states of knowledge as a basis for information retrieval" (1980). ASK is based upon an understanding of information needs as an individual, mental state. Belkin describe ASK as "the recognition of an anomaly by the recipient in his/her state of knowledge" which can only be solved by communication, e.g. by contact with an information system. 2013-J-P-III-Q-14

ASLIB: Association for Information Management (ASLIB) previously Association of Special Libraries and Information Bureaux (ASLIB) is a nonprofit organization with an interest in the efficient management of information resources and was established in 1924 in England. 2004-D-P-II-Q-33, 2008-J-P-II-Q-2, 2008-J-P-II-Q-33, 2005-J-P-II-Q-4, 2005-J-P-II-Q-43, 2008-D-P-II-Q-32, 2009-D-P-II-Q-40, 2010-J-P-II-Q-35, 2011-J-P-II-Q-33, 2011-D-P-II-Q-43, 2012-J-P-II-Q-29, 2013-D-P-II-Q-24, 2014-J-P-II-Q-28

ASTINFO: Regional Network for the Exchange of Information and Experience in Science and Technology in Asia and the Pacific (ASTINFO) is a co-operative programme which aims to promote the exchange of information and experience in science and technology among countries in the Asia/Pacific region. It was established in 1983 as a result of the Second Conference of the Science Ministers and Economic Planning Bodies in the Asia/Pacific region (CASTASIA II), held in March 1982 in Manilla (Philippines). 2007-J-P-II-Q-36, 2013-D-P-III-Q-15

AU: Audio (AU) file format is a simple audio file format introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992. 2014-J-P-III-Q-61

AUP: An Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) is a set of rules applied by the libraries, creator or administrator of a network, website, or service, that restrict the ways in which the network, website or system may be used and sets guide lines as to how it should be used by library patrons or users and restrict unlawful activities.

AVI: Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) also Audio Video Interleave (AVI)) is a multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows software. AVI files can contain both audio and video data in a file container that allows synchronous audio-with-video playback. 2012-J-P-III-Q-65

Badan BarmanBadan Barman at present working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Library and Information Science, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India. He is the creator of the LIS Links (http://www.lislinks.com) - India’s most popular social networking website for Library and Information Science professionals. He also created the UGC NET Guide (http://www.netugc.com) and LIS Study (http://www.lisstudy.com) website.

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