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Abbreviations Starting with Letter C

CALIBER: Convention on Automation of Libraries in Education and Research Institutions (CALIBER) is a bi-annual convention organized by the Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Centre in different parts of the country in collaboration with universities, was initiated in 1994. 2005-J-P-II-Q-19, 2007-J-P-II-Q-15

CALIBNET: Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) provides online access to library and information resources in India for the libraries of Kolkata and was funded by the Government of India in 1992. 2007-J-P-II-Q-36

CAN MARC: Canadian Machine Readable Cataloguing (CAN MARC) format first came into use at the National Library of Canada in 1973. 2013-S-P-III-Q-39

CAPS: Content, Abstract and Photocopy Service (CAPS) is an innovative fee-based personalised information service provided by National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR).

CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society and is a source of chemical information located in Columbus, Ohio, United States founded in 1907. Chemical Abstracts is a periodical index that provides summaries and indexes of disclosures in recently published scientific documents.

CAS: Current Awareness Service (CAS) is an alert service that provides knowledge to the user regarding recent developments in the field of general interest. For example, routing of periodicals is a CAS. 2005-J-P-II-Q-7, 2007-J-P-II-Q-8

CAUL: Council of Australian University Librarians (CAUL) previously known as Committee of Australian University Librarians (CAUL) was established in 1965. The CAUL office was established in 1995 and is located in Canberra, Australia.

CBI: Cumulative Book Index (CBI) is bibliographical index of English-language books, first published in 1898 by the H. W. Wilson Co. as a monthly list of books issued in the US. 2004-D-P-II-Q-43

CC: Colon Classification (CC) is a classifying scheme used to classify books and other library documents in a library, first developed by Dr. S. R. Ranganathan and published in the year 1933. The name "colon classification" comes from the use of colons to separate facets in class numbers. 2008-D-P-II-Q-30, 2010-J-P-II-Q-38, 2011-J-P-II-Q-40

CC: Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The CC organization was founded in 2001 by Lester Lawrence "Larry" Lessig III, Hal Abelson, and Eric Eldred with the support of Center for the Public Domain.

CCC: Classified Catalogue Code (CCC) is a subject catalogue arranged on the basis of notation devised my Dr. S. R. Ranganathan in 1934. 2007-D-P-II-Q-35, 2010-D-P-II-Q-37, 2010-D-P-II-Q-39, 2015-D-P-III-Q-42

CCF: Common Communication Format (CCF) is a structured and standard format used for creating and exchanging bibliographic records, first edition of which was published in 1984 under the editorship of Peter Simmons and Alan Hopkins under the guidance of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). 2006-J-P-II-Q-33, 2006-J-P-II-Q-40, 2008-D-P-II-Q-33, 2010-J-P-II-Q-3, 2010-J-P-II-Q-31, 2010-D-P-II-Q-37, 2011-J-P-II-Q-37, 2015-D-P-II-Q-30

CCTV: Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors to monitor traffic for security purpose. The noted German engineer Walter Bruch, Wayne Cox, and Tashara Arnold were responsible for the technological design and installation of the system at Test Stand VII in Peenemünde, Germany in 1942, for observing the launch of V-2 rockets.

CD: Compact Disc (CD) is a 4.75-inch digital optical disc data storage format capable of storing 700 mebibyte (MiB) which was introduced in 1982 by Philips and Sony. 2008-J-P-II-Q-44

C-DAC: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) is a research and development organization under the Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Govt of India. The National Centre for Software Technology (NCST), ER & DCI and CEDTI were merged into C-DAC in 2003. 2013-J-P-III-Q-61, 2014-J-P-III-Q-40

C-DOT: Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) is an Indian Government owned telecommunications technology development centre. It was established in 1984 with its headquarters in Delhi with initial mandate of designing and developing digital exchanges. 2014-J-P-III-Q-40

CD-R: Compact Disc-Recordable (CD-R) is a digital optical disc storage format. A CD-R disc is a compact disc that can be written once and read arbitrarily many times.

CD-ROM: A Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM) is a pre-pressed optical compact disc measuring 4.72 inches which contains data and is not writable or erasable. 2004-D-P-II-Q-47

CD-RW: Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a digital optical disc storage format. A CD-RW disc is a compact disc that can be written, read arbitrarily many times, erased, and written again. The technology was introduced in 1997.

CDA: Communications Decency Act of 1996 (CDA), also known by some legislators as the "Great Internet Sex Panic of 1995", was the first notable act by the United States Congress to regulate pornographic material on the Internet.

CDS: Cataloguing Distribution Service (CDS) is a program of Library of Congress to publish and distribute in print or in electronic format Library of Congress cataloguing records and cataloguing-related tools and resources.

CDS/ISIS: Computerised Documentation Service / Integrated Sets of Information System (CDS/ISIS) is a software package first originated at International Labour Organization (ILO) in the early 1960's and released in 1985 for generalised Information Storage and Retrieval systems developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO. 2007-D-P-II-Q-33, 2011-D-P-II-Q-44

CeRA: Consortium for e-Resources in Agriculture (CeRA) was established in November 2007 for facilitating accessibility of scientific journals to all researchers / teachers in the National Agricultural Research System by providing access to information specially access to journals online which is crucial for having excellence in research and teaching. 2016-J-P-III-Q-19

CGI: Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a program interface installed on a Web server that allows Web pages to be linked to databases and other programs in such a way that input can be entered via the Web page and sent to a database management system for searching and then results are sent back by the Database Management System (DBMS) and presented to the user in HTML format.

CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP) is leading professional body for librarians, information specialists, and knowledge managers in the United Kingdom formed in April 2002 by the union of the Institute of Information Scientists (IIS) and the Library Association (UK) with its head office in 7 Ridgmount Street, London. 2008-J-P-II-Q-33, 2008-D-P-II-Q-32, 2010-J-P-II-Q-5, 2013-S-P-II-Q-5, 2013-D-P-II-Q-24, 2014-J-P-II-Q-28, 2014-D-P-III-Q-62

CIO: Chief Information Officer (CIO) or Chief Digital Information Officer (CDIO) or Information Technology (IT) Director, is a job title commonly given to the most senior executive in an enterprise responsible for the information technology and computer systems that support enterprise goals. The Chief Information Officer role was first defined in 1981 by William R. Synnott, former Senior Vice President of the Bank of Boston, and William H. Gruber, former professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management.

CIP Project (India): Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP) Project (India) is taken up by Raja Rammohun Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF) to produce catalogues of publications-in-print using MARC 21, AACR II, Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), LCSH and special internationally known subject thesauri. 2014-D-P-III-Q-14

CIP: Cataloging-in-Publication (CIP) is a pre-publication cataloguing program in which participating publishers complete a standardized data sheet and submit it with the front matter or entire text of a new book to the Library of Congress (LoC) for assigning an Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) and preparing a bibliographic record, which is sent back to the publisher within 10 days to be printed on the verso of the title page. The CIP Program began at the Library of Congress in 1971. 2007-J-P-II-Q-44

CIS: Community Information System (CIS) is a centralized source providing government, business, historical, and geographic information to a local community or small group of communities, intended primarily for the use of local residents, prospective residents, and visitors.

CLA: Canadian Library Association (CLA) is a national, predominantly English-language association which represents 57,000 library workers across Canada. The Canadian Library Association (CLA) was founded in Hamilton, Ontario in 1946, and was incorporated under the Companies Act on November 26, 1947. 2012-D-P-III-Q-62

CLIR: Council on Library & Information Resources (CLIR) is an American independent, nonprofit organization formed by merging the Commission on Preservation and Access (CPA) and the Council on Library Resources (CLR) in 1997. It works with libraries, cultural institutions, and higher learning communities on developing strategies to improve research, teaching, and learning environments. It is based in Washington, D.C., United States.

CLM: Copyright and other Legal Matters (CLM) is a program of International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to advise International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) and represent the voice of the international library community in copyright and intellectual property concerns.

CLRI: Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI) is the world's largest leather research institute in terms of research papers and patents located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu and were founded on 24 April 1948 as a constituent laboratory under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. 2010-J-P-II-Q-44

CMS: Content Management System (CMS) is a computer application to create, edit, publish, store, and manage Web page content without knowledge of HTML or Web design skills using a common user interface and thus usually supporting multiple users working in a collaborative environment.

CNI: Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) supports the transformative promise of digital information technology for the advancement of scholarly communication and the enrichment of intellectual productivity. CNI is based in Washington, DC.

COBOL: COmmon Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) is a computer programming language designed for business use, first appeared in 1959.

COD: Cash on Delivery (COD) or sometimes called as Collect On Delivery (COD) is the sale of goods by mail order where payment is to be made after the delivery of the goods rather than in advance.

COM: Computer Output Microfilm (COM) is a system that converts stored data directly to microfilm or microfiche as images for archiving.

COMLA: Commonwealth Library Association (COMLA) was founded in 1972 with its headquarters in Kingston 7, Jamaica. COMLA supports library associations in the Commonwealth by promoting the interests of libraries and librarians and facilitating networks for information delivery and exchange. 2014-J-P-II-Q-28

CONPOLIS: COmmittee on National POlicy on Library and Information System (CONPOLIS) is set up by the Department of Culture, Government of India on 7th October 1985 under the chairmanship of Professor D. P. Chattopadhyaya to consider the document "National Policy on Library and Information System" prepared by the Raja Rammohun Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF). 2009-D-P-II-Q-3, 2015-J-P-III-Q-54

CONSER: Cooperative Online Serials Program (CONSER) previously known CONversion of SERials (CONSER) began in the early 1970s as a project to convert manual serial cataloguing into machine-readable records and has evolved into an ongoing program to create and maintain high quality bibliographic records for serials. In keeping with its evolution, the name was changed in 1986 from the CONversion of SERials (CONSER) Project to the Cooperative ONline SERials (CONSER) Program. 2013-D-P-III-Q-26

CORBA: Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a standard defined by the Object Management Group (OMG) designed to facilitate the communication of systems that are deployed on diverse platforms.

COUNTER: Counting Online Usage of Networked Electronic Resources (COUNTER) is an international initiative serving librarians, publishers and intermediaries by setting standards that facilitate the recording and reporting of online usage statistics in a consistent, credible and compatible way which was launched in March 2002.

CPM: Critical Path Method (CPM) is an algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities developed in the late 1950s by Morgan R. Walker of DuPont and James E. Kelley, Jr. of Remington Rand. CPM means small set of dependent activities that form longest path of activity network.

CPSO: Cataloguing Policy and Support Office (CPSO) presently known as the Policy and Standards Division of the Library of Congress provides guidance in the application of cataloguing rules, develops documentation to support cataloguing policies and practices, monitors cataloguing trends, develops new policies to match innovations in cataloguing, and contributes to the national and international library community discussions on such matters.

CPU: A Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the hardware component consisting of electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. 2008-J-P-II-Q-44

CRG: Classification Research Group (CRG) was formed in England in 1952 and was active until 1968. The CRG was a significant contributor to classification research and theory in the field of library and information science in the latter half of the 20th century.

CRT: Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) is a specialized vacuum tube in which images are produced when an electron beam strikes a phosphorescent surface. Most desktop computer displays make use of CRTs.

CSIR: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), established in 1942, is an autonomous body and the largest research and development (R&D) organisation in India. National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) was established on 30th September 2002 in New Delhi under the umbrella of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). 2008-J-P-II-Q-4

CSS: Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a mark-up language that allows Web site developers to automatically apply the same layout to multiple documents. It is first developed by Håkon Wium, Lie Bert Bos of World Wide Web Consortium and initially released on December 17, 1996.

CURL: Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) started in the 1997 with seven libraries (the university libraries of Cambridge, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, London, Manchester, and Oxford) to increase the ability of research libraries to share resources among themselves. The CURL presently known as Research Libraries UK (RLUK) and comprises of 34 University and other research libraries in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

Badan BarmanDr. Badan Barman at present working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Library and Information Science, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India. He is the creator of the LIS Links ( - India’s most popular social networking website for Library and Information Science professionals. He also created the Open Access Journals Search Engine (OAJSE) (, UGC NET Guide (, Assam Archive ( and LIS Study ( website.

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