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Abbreviations Starting with Letter D

DARE: Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) was established in the Ministry of Agriculture in December, 1973. The Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) coordinates and promotes agricultural research & education in the country.

DARPA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. DARPA was created in February 1958 as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) by President Dwight D. Eisenhower with its headquarters in Arlington, Virginia, U.S.. 2013-S-P-II-Q-36

DBF: DataBase File (DBF) is a file format typically used by database software. The file type was introduced in 1983 with the introduction of dBASE II. The .dbf file extension represents the dBASE database file. 2016-J-P-III-Q-44

DBK: DataBase Backup (DBK) files that contain the .dbk file extension are compressed backup files that have been created for certain Sony Ericsson mobile phones. These DBK files are created by the Sony Ericsson PC Suite, which is a data management application for Sony Ericsson mobile devices that a user can install on his or her PC. 2016-J-P-III-Q-44

DBO: DarkBASIC Object (DBO) is file type and having the extension .dbo developed by The Game Creators. 2016-J-P-III-Q-44

DBMS: Database Management System (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to store, retrieve, maintaining security, integrity, and analyzing of data. 2006-D-P-II-Q-45

DBT: Database Text File (DBT) is a file extension for a text memo file format used by dBase database development software. The files are having an extension of .dbt. 2016-J-P-III-Q-44

DC: Dublin Core (DC) is a standard set of 15 interoperable metadata elements designed to facilitate the description and recovery of web resources (video, images, web pages, etc.), as well as physical resources such as books or CDs, and objects like artworks resources available via internet.

DCMES: Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) is a vocabulary of fifteen properties for use in resource description in Dublin core. 2009-D-P-II-Q-19, 2010-J-P-II-Q-14, 2013-S-P-II-Q-28

DCMI: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) is an open organization that provides an open forum for the development of interoperable online metadata standards for a broad range of purposes and of business models especially the Dublic Core metadata standard.

DDC: Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) is a hierarchical system for classifying books and other library materials by subject, first published in 1876 by the librarian and educator Melvil Dewey, who divided human knowledge into 10 main classes, each of which is divided into 10 divisions, etc. It is currently maintained by the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC). In DDC 17, “Auxiliary table for area” was first introduced in DDC. Dewey Decimal Classification, for the first time in the 18th edition made provision for the use of phase relation which is done through the Standard Subdivision -024. 2008-J-P-II-Q-40, 2005-J-P-II-Q-29, 2008-D-P-II-Q-30, 2009-D-P-II-Q-9, 2010-J-P-II-Q-9, 2010-J-P-II-Q-38, 2011-J-P-II-Q-40

DDL: Data Definition Language (DDL) or Data Description Language (DDL) is syntax similar to a computer programming language for defining data structures, especially database schemas.

DDS: Document Delivery Service (DDS) is the transfer of information resource from one end to the other by way of CD, DVD, Email, Fax, or through general postal mail.

DEC: Distance Education Council (DEC) was an organisation based in New Delhi, India responsible for the promotion and coordination of the open university and distance education system and for determination of its standards in India. In June 2013, University Grants Commission (UGC) has taken over DEC, by establishing Distance Education Bureau (DEB) which will govern the distance education programs in India.

DELNET: Developing Library Network (DELNET) formerly Delhi Library Network (DELNET) is the first operational library network in India, started as a project of the India International Centre in January 1988. 2004-D-P-II-Q-32, 2008-J-P-II-Q-32, 2006-J-P-II-Q-37, 2007-D-P-II-Q-37, 2010-J-P-II-Q-20, 2012-D-P-II-Q-12, 2013-J-P-III-Q-46, 2013-D-P-III-Q-38

DESIDOC: Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) is a division of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) established on 29 July 1970 and located in Delhi, its main function is the collection, processing and dissemination of relevant technical information for DRDO scientists. 2008-J-P-II-Q-16, 2010-J-P-II-Q-43, 2012-J-P-II-Q-36

DESINET: Defense Scientific Information Network (DESINET) was established in 1986 with the sponsorship of Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre (DESIDOC), Delhi. 2016-J-P-III-Q-41

DEVSIS: Development Science Information System (DEVSIS) is the preliminary design of an international information system for the development sciences prepared by the DEVSIS Study Team, which worked in Geneva, in between March - September 1975 on behalf of its co-sponsors: IDRC, ILO, OECD, UNDP and UNESCO. 2010-J-P-II-Q-43

DLF: Digital Library Federation (DLF) is a program of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) that brings together a consortium of college and university libraries, public libraries, museums, and related institutions with the stated mission of advanccng research, learning, and the public good through digital library technologies. It was formed in 1995.

DMAIC: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control (DMAIC) refers to a data-driven improvement cycle used for improving, optimizing and stabilizing business processes and designs. The DMAIC improvement cycle is the core tool used to drive Six Sigma projects. 2014-D-P-II-Q-6

DMCA: Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law signed in October 1998 that criminalizes production and dissemination of technology, devices, or services intended to circumvent measures (commonly known as Digital Rights Management or DRM) that control access to copyrighted works. 2011-D-P-II-Q-10

DML: Data Manipulation Language (DML) is a family of syntax elements similar to a computer programming language used for selecting, inserting, deleting and updating data in a database.

DNB: Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (ODNB) was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online. 2013-S-P-II-Q-6

DNS: Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system used primarily to translate numerical IP addresses (example: 123.456.78.9) into the alphanumeric domain name addresses ( familiar to Internet users, and vice versa. The DNS is administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).

DOAJ: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a website that lists, provide search and metadata download options for the open access journals in all available languages. It was launched in May 2003 by Lund University in Sweden and presently maintained by Infrastructure Services for Open Access (IS4OA). 2012-J-P-III-Q-64

DOI: Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is an international standard introduced in the year 2000 and consisting of a serial code used to uniquely identify and exchange electronic documents such as journal articles, book, images and other electronic files. The DOI consists of two parts: a prefix assigned to each publisher by the administrative DOI agency and a suffix assigned by the publisher that may be any code the publisher chooses. 2013-S-P-III-Q-30

DOS: Disk Operating System (DOS) is an acronym for several computer operating systems that are operated by using the command line. MS-DOS dominated the IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995 or until about 2000 including the partially MS-DOS-based Microsoft Windows (95, 98, and Millennium Edition). 2015-J-P-II-Q-26

DPI: Dots Per Inch (DPI) is a measure of image quality (resolution) in display and printing and is the number of individual dots that can be placed in a line within the span of 1 inch (2.54 cm).

DRDO: Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is an agency of the Republic of India, charged with the military's research and development, headquartered in New Delhi, India. It was formed in 1958 by the merger of the Technical Development Establishment and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production with the Defence Science Organisation.

DRM: Digital Rights Management (DRM) is a systematic approach to copyright protection for digital media through hardware and software and other access control technologies. It is used to control view, play, print, save, copy transferring files from one media to another one.

DRTC: Documentation Research & Training Centre (DRTC) was established in January 1962 as a division of the Indian Statistical Institute as a result of a proposal submitted under the chairmanship of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. 2005-J-P-II-Q-41, 2015-J-P-III-Q-24

DSIR: Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) is a part of the Ministry of Science and Technology with a mandate to carry out the activities relating to indigenous technology promotion, development, utilization and transfer. It also oversees the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India's largest research and development organization.

DSL: Digital Subscriber Line (DSL); originally Digital Subscriber Loop is a telecommunication protocols developed in the late 1990s that significantly increase the transmission speed of ordinary telephone lines by employing sophisticated modulation schemes designed to boost the capacity of existing copper wire to transmit digital data, without blocking access to voice services.

DTP: Desktop Publishing (DTP) is the use of microcomputer hardware and software instead of traditional typography and printing for page layout, graphic design, and to produce professional-quality camera-ready copy for commercial printing. 2006-D-P-II-Q-45

DVD: Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) or Digital Video Disc (DVD) is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995 capable of storing data of 4.7-17.08 GB.

Badan BarmanBadan Barman at present working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Library and Information Science, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India. He is the creator of the LIS Links ( - India’s most popular social networking website for Library and Information Science professionals. He also created the UGC NET Guide ( and LIS Study ( website.

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