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Abbreviations Starting with Letter L

LA: Library Association (LA) was the leading library association in the United Kingdom, founded in 1877. In April 2002, LA merged with the Institute of Information Scientists (IIS) to form the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP). 2008-J-P-II-Q-2, 2008-D-P-II-Q-6, 2008-D-P-II-Q-32, 2009-D-P-II-Q-40, 2010-J-P-II-Q-5

LAMP:  Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) is an archetypal model of web service solution stacks. LAMP named as an acronym of the names of its original four open-source components: the Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system (RDBMS), and the PHP programming language. 2013-J-P-III-Q-16

LAN: Local Area Network (LAN) is a computer communications network restricted to a relatively small geographic area, often within a single building or group of adjacent buildings such as a college, university, or corporate campus, consisting of at least one server, client, a network operating system, and a communications link.

LARRDIS: Parliament Library and Reference, Research, Documentation and Information Service (LARRDIS) is a library for the exclusive use of members of the Central Legislative Assembly which was set up in 1921. 2015-J-P-III-Q-19

LC MARC: Library of Congress Machine-Readable Cataloging (LC MARC) is a standard of digital formats for the description of items catalogued by libraries first developed by Henriette Davidson Avram working with the Library of Congress in the 1960s. 2013-S-P-III-Q-39

LCC: Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of classifying books and other library materials. George Herbert Putnam invented Putnam Classification System in 1897 that forms the basis of the Library of Congress Classification (LCC), just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. Later on LCC is developed by James C.M. Hanson. The system divides all knowledge into twenty-one basic classes, each identified by a single letter of the alphabet. 2010-J-P-II-Q-38, 2011-J-P-II-Q-40

LCCN: Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloguing records in the Library of Congress in the United States for identification and control.

LCD: Liquid-crystal Display (LCD) is an electronic visual display that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals that consume less power than a conventional light-emitting monitor and occupies less space.

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is the complete alphabetic list of controlled vocabulary created by cataloguers and used in cataloguing since 1906 at the Library of Congress in assigning subject headings to facilitate access to the information content of newly published works. The development of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) took place under the initiative of J.C.M. Hanson. 2012-D-P-II-Q-41

LIPHIS: LInked PHrase Indexing System (LIPHIS) is a system of computer-assisted permuted subject indexing developed by Timothy C. Craven in 1978. 2014-J-P-III-Q-12

LIS Links: Library and Information Science Links (LIS Links) is the India's first and largest social networking platform for the Library and Information Science professionals, designed and developed by Badan Barman on 26th February, 2008.

LIS: Library and Information Science (LIS) is a discipline that concerned with the body of knowledge relating to the origin, storage, retrieval, transmission and utilization of information. Library and Information Science (LIS) is the academic and professional study of how information and information carriers are produced, disseminated, discovered, evaluated, selected, acquired, used, organized, maintained, and managed.

LISA: Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) is an international abstracting and indexing service published from 1950 that covers bibliographic information about past and present developments in librarianship, information science, online retrieval, publishing and information technology. LISA was previously published by Bowker-Saur Limited, London (RELX Group) and then by monthly by the Library Association of Great Britain and cover 440 periodicals from more than 68 countries and in more than 20 different languages. 2004-D-P-II-Q-43, 2005-J-P-II-Q-26, 2012-D-P-II-Q-41

LISWiki: Library and Information Science Wiki (LISWIKI) is an online open encyclopaedia in Library and Information Science developed in a wiki platform. was founded by John Hubbard in 2005.

LMS: Learning Management System (LMS) is an integrated set of online applications providing access to course assignments and materials, tests and test results, e-discussion and chat space, and other features in support of education, particularly in colleges and universities for e-learning courses or program.

Loc. cit.: Loco Citato (Loc. cit.) is a Latin abbreviation meaning "in the place cited". It is a footnote or endnote term used to repeat the title and page number for a given work (and author). In simple, Loc. cit. is used in place of ibid. when the reference is not only to the work immediately preceding, but also refers to the same page. 2005-J-P-II-Q-23, 2011-D-P-II-Q-42, 2012-J-P-III-Q-61

LoC: Library of Congress (LoC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress, but also the de facto national library of the United States established in 1800 in the Washington, D.C.. It is the second largest library of the world after the British Library.

LOCKSS: Lots of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe (LOCKSS) is a project under the auspices of Stanford University started in 1998 for a peer-to-peer network that develops and supports an open source system allowing libraries to collect, preserve and provide their readers with access to material published on the Web. The project aim at creating application to create low-cost, persistent digital "caches” of electronic journal articles, housed locally at institutions that have authorized access to the content and elect to preserve it. 2014-D-P-III-Q-11, 2016-J-P-III-Q-20

LOEX: Library Orientation Exchange (LOEX) is a "library outreach" office established in 1971 at Eastern Michigan State University with the aid of a grant from the Council on Library Resources (CLR) and the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) that served as clearinghouse for bibliographic instruction materials and resources on library instruction.

LTP: Library Technology Project (LTP) is a program of the American Library Association (ALA) to test relatively inexpensive materials and equipment formed on May 1, 1959. 2013-S-P-III-Q-19

LZW: Lempel–Ziv–Welch (LZW) is a universal lossless data compression algorithm created by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch. It was published by Welch in 1984 as an improved implementation of the LZ78 algorithm published by Lempel and Ziv in 1978.

Badan BarmanDr. Badan Barman at present working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Library and Information Science, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India. He is the creator of the LIS Links ( - India’s most popular social networking website for Library and Information Science professionals. He also created the Open Access Journals Search Engine (OAJSE) (, UGC NET Guide (, Assam Archive ( and LIS Study ( website.

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