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Abbreviations Starting with Letter P

PAC: Programme on Preservation and Conservation (PAC) is a strategic programme of International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) which was officially created during the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) annual conference in Nairobi in 1984 to focus efforts on issues of preservation and initiate worldwide cooperation for the preservation of library materials.

PBL: Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem. The PBL was developed at the McMaster University Medical School in Canada in the 1960s and has since spread around the world.

PC: Personal Computer (PC) is a general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and sale price makes it useful for individuals consisting of a Central Processing Unit (CPU) and associated peripheral devices and where generally the hardware is controlled by Intel and the operating system by Microsoft.

PCC: Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) is one of two cooperative cataloguing ventures of the Library of Congress. The PCC is an international cooperative effort aimed at expanding access to library collections by providing useful, timely, and cost-effective cataloguing that meets mutually-accepted standards of libraries around the world. PCC programs include the Monographic Bibliographic Record Cooperative Program (BIBCO), Cooperative Online Serials Program (CONSER), Name Authority Cooperative Program (NACO), and the Subject Authority Cooperative Program (SACO).

PCM: Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, Compact Discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications. 2012-D-P-III-Q-13

PDA: Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) is a mobile device that functions as a personal information manager first introduced in 1980s. PDAs were largely discontinued in the early 2010s after the widespread adoption of highly capable smartphones.

PDCA: Plan–Do–Check–Act (PDCA) or Plan–Do–Check–Adjust (PDCA)) is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products. It is also known as the Deming circle/cycle/wheel, Shewhart cycle, control circle/cycle, or Plan–Do–Study–Act (PDSA). PDCA was made popular by William Edwards Deming, who is considered by many to be the father of modern quality control.

PDF/A: Portable Document Format / Archive (PDF/A) is an ISO-standardized version of the Portable Document Format (PDF) specialized for the digital preservation of electronic documents. It was initially released by ISO in 2005. PDF/A differs from PDF by prohibiting features ill-suited to long-term archiving, such as font linking (as opposed to font embedding). 2013-J-P-III-Q-55

PDF: Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems and is used for capturing and sending electronic documents that consist of exact duplication of the original paper copy including graphics, tables, fonts, layout, colors and paginations and requires Adobe Acrobat Reader to view. In 1991, Adobe Systems' co-founder John Warnock outlined a system called "Camelot" that developed into PDF on June 15, 1993. 2012-J-P-III-Q-65, 2014-J-P-III-Q-61, 2015-J-P-II-Q-21

PERT: Program (or project) Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), is a statistical tool, used in project management, which was designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project. PERT means interconnecting networks depicting tasks, duration and dependency. PERT was developed by the United States Navy in the 1958. 2009-J-P-II-Q-12

PG: Project Gutenberg (PG) is the oldest digital library with full text public domain books and is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works for the first time in history, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks" via Internet. It was founded on 1st December 1971 by University of Illinois student Michael Stern Hart.

PGI: Program General d’ Information (PGI) or General Information Programme (PGI) was established in 1976 combining both the National Information System (NATIS) and United Nations International Scientific Information System (UNISIST) programmes. The primary role of General Information Programme is to promote computer application and communication technologies in library and information services, information network and provision of on line facilities for sharing and exchanging information between different countries all over the world. 2016-J-P-II-Q-17

PIN: Postal Index Number (PIN) or Pincode is a six digits long code used for the post offices by India Post, introduced on 15 August 1972 by Mr. Shriram Bhikaji Velankar.

PIO: Public Information Officers (PIOs) are the communications coordinators or spokespersons of certain governmental organizations.

PIS: Patent Information System (PIS) was established by the Government of India, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion in the year 1980 in Nagpur. 2006-J-P-II-Q-29

PLA: Public Library Association (PLA) is a professional association of public librarians and supporters dedicated to the "development and effectiveness of public library staff and public library services." It acts as a division of the American Library Association (ALA). PLA was formed in 1944 with its headquarters in Chicago, Illinois, United States. 2014-J-P-III-Q-19

PLANNER: Promotion of Library Automation and Networking in North Eastern Region (PLANNER) is a bi-annual convention with a special focus to uplift academic libraries in the North-Eastern region, India in the aspect of library automation and networking. The event is organized by Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Centre along with the universities located in the respective North-Eastern States.

PMEST: Personality, Matter, Energy Space and Time (PMEST) are the five main facets in S. R. Ranganathan's Colon Classification. S. R. Ranganathan originated the system of five fundamental categories (Personality, Matter, Energy, Space, Time) in order of decreasing concreteness to focus on subjects, topics and objects.  2015-D-P-II-Q-35

PNG: Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is a raster graphics file format that supports lossless data compression. PNG was created as an improved, non-patented replacement for Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), and is the most used lossless image compression format on the Internet. 2012-D-P-II-Q-15

POP: Post Office Protocol (POP) is an application-layer Internet standard protocol used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) connection.

POPSI: Postulate based Permuted Subject Indexing (POPSI) is a pre- coordinate indexing system developed by Ganesh Bhattacharyya in 1979 at the Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore. 2005-J-P-II-Q-28, 2009-J-P-II-Q-34, 2013-D-P-III-Q-57

POSDCORB: Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Co-Ordinating, Reporting and Budgeting (POSDCORB) reflects the classic view of administrative management. POSDCORB largely drawn from the work of French industrialist Henri Fayol, it first appeared in a 1937 staff paper by Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick written for the Brownlow Committee. 2007-J-P-II-Q-2, 2011-J-P-II-Q-8, 2013-S-P-II-Q-30

PPBS: Planning, Programming and Budgeting System (PPBS) is a long-term, program-oriented Defense budgeting system developed by Charles J. Hitch at the direction of Robert Strange McNamara in 1962. PPBS combines the best of both programme budgeting and performance budgeting. 2013-S-P-II-Q-30

PPL: Peace Palace Library (PPL) is a collection of studies and references specializing in international law. It is located in The Hague, Netherlands, and was established to support the Permanent Court of Justice.

PQDT: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (PQDT) is bibliographic database of American (and international) dissertations published by University Microfilms International (UMI) / ProQuest, Ann Arbor, since 1938.

PRECIS: Preserved Context Indexing System (PRECIS) is a computer-assisted string indexing system developed by Derek Austin and used since 1971 in the British National Bibliography. 2004-D-P-II-Q-44, 2009-J-P-II-Q-34, 2010-D-P-II-Q-42

PURL: Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURL) is a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that is used to redirect to the location of the requested web resource. The PURL concept was developed at Online Computer Library Center, Inc. (OCLC) in 1995 and implemented using a forked pre-1.0 release of Apache HTTP Server.

Badan BarmanDr. Badan Barman at present working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Library and Information Science, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India. He is the creator of the LIS Links ( - India’s most popular social networking website for Library and Information Science professionals. He also created the Open Access Journals Search Engine (OAJSE) (, UGC NET Guide (, Assam Archive ( and LIS Study ( website.

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