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Abbreviations Starting with Letter T

TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCPP/IP) is a set of communications protocols developed by the U. S. Department of Defense and implemented in 1982 to allow the users of host computers of different types and sizes to communicate with each other and exchange data via the Internet and other networks.

TEACH: Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act is an Act of the United States Congress enacted in 2002 that amends the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) to permit nonprofit, accredited educational institutions certain exemptions in the use of copyrighted materials.

TEI: Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is a consortium which collectively develops and maintains a standard for the representation of texts in digital form., operating continuously since the 1987. Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) project sponsored by Association for Computers and the Humanities (ACH), ACL, and ALLC. 2013-D-P-III-Q-29

TELNET: TELecommunication NETwork (TELNET) is an application layer protocol used on the Internet or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection. 2006-D-P-II-Q-44, 2012-D-P-II-Q-16

TIFF: Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) is a computer file format for storing raster graphics images which is widely supported by image-manipulation applications, by publishing and page layout applications, and by scanning, faxing, word processing, optical character recognition and other applications created by Aldus Corporation (now Adobe Systems) for use in desktop publishing in 1986. 2012-D-P-II-Q-15, 2013-J-P-III-Q-55, 2014-J-P-III-Q-61

TIFR: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) is a public research institution in Mumbai and Hyderabad, India, dedicated to basic research in mathematics and the sciences. It is a Deemed University and works under the umbrella of the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India.

TKDL: Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) is an Indian digital knowledge repository of the traditional knowledge, especially about medicinal plants and formulations used in Indian systems of medicine. TKDL was set up in 2001, as collaboration between the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the Ministry of Ayush. 2012-J-P-III-Q-64, 2013-J-P-III-Q-61, 2013-S-P-II-Q-19, 2015-J-P-III-Q-50

TLD: Top-Level Domain (TLD) is the highest level domain in the hierarchical Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet and it is the last part of the domain name, that is, the last label of a fully qualified domain name.

TM: Trademark (TM) is a recognizable sign, design, or unique expression related to products or services of a particular source from those of others which is owned by an individual, business organization, or any legal entity and it is registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

TOC: Table of Content (TOC) is a list of the contents of a printed publication in the order of their appearance, usually with page numbers as locators. In case of the table of content of a book it usually includes the titles or descriptions of the first-level headers, such as chapter titles in longer works, and often includes second-level or section titles within the chapters as well, and occasionally even third-level titles.

TQM: Total Quality Management (TQM) consists of organization-wide efforts to install and make permanent a climate in which an organization continuously improves its ability to deliver high-quality products and services to customers. The Total Quality Management (TQM) effort builds on the pioneering work of Walter Andrew Shewhart, Dr. William Edwards Deming, Dr. Joseph Moses Juran, Armand V. Feigenbaum, Philip B. Crosby, Kaoru Ishikawa and others, and benefits from both private and public sector experience with continuous process improvement. 2008-D-P-II-Q-10, 2013-S-P-II-Q-30, 2016-J-P-II-Q-14

TR-I: Translation Register Index (TR-I) is a semi-monthly publication being issued by the National Translation Centre (NTC), Chicago, since 1967. It is the index of unpublished translations done in the United States and elsewhere. 2013-D-P-III-Q-58

Badan BarmanBadan Barman at present working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Library and Information Science, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India. He is the creator of the LIS Links ( - India’s most popular social networking website for Library and Information Science professionals. He also created the UGC NET Guide ( and LIS Study ( website.

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