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American Psychological Association (APA) Citation Style

1. Introduction: APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in writing an article / paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list.

2. In Text Citation: In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited. To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), one should include the page (p. or pp.), chapter (Chapter), paragraphs (para. or   ), etc. in the in-text citation.

2.1 Basic Guideline for In Text Citations
a) Capitalize Proper Noun: Always capitalize the first letter of the word of proper nouns, including author names and initials: For example: B. Barman.
b) Capitalize four or More Letter Long Word: If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source. Example: Library Legislation in India. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs.
c) Capitalize Sub-Titles: Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon.
d) Italicize Book Title: Italicize longer or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums.
e) Put Quotation Mark for Article Title: Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles.
f) Short Quotation: If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the surname of the author, year of publication, and the page number preceded by “p.” or “para.” in the in-text citation.
g) Long Quotation: In case of 40 words, or longer quotations, put it in a free-standing block of typewritten lines without quotation marks but on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph and type the entire quotation on the new margin. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

2.2 Examples of In Text Citations
a) Works by a Single Author: The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point. If the name of the author and / or the date appear as part of the narrative, cite only missing information in parentheses.
            To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), include the page (p. or pp.), chapter (chapter), etc. in the in-text citation. If page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as Web-based journals), provide the paragraph (para.) number or the heading.
Example:
If there is a rural library then there should be an urban library (Barman, 2008)
“If there is a rural library then there should be an urban library” (Barman, 2008, p. 5)
“If there is a rural library then there should be an urban library” (Barman, 2008, para. 2)
Barman (2008) opined that “if there is a rural library then there should be an urban library” (p.5)

b) Works by Double Authors: In case of two authors, join the names with an ampersand (&) and always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. In the narrative text, join the names with the word “and”.
Example:
gateway to knowledge (Barman & Baishya, 2010)
Barman and Baishya (2010) demonstrated

c) Works by More Than Double Authors: When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.” (Latin for “and others”) and the year of publication.
Example:
First time:                   Lahkar, Barman, and Baishya (2015) listed
Subsequent time:        Lahkar et al. (2015) listed

d) Works by Associations, Corporations, Government Agencies, etc.: The names of group that serve as authors (corporate authors) are usually written out each time they appear in a text reference. When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations. The general rule for abbreviating in this manner is to supply enough information in the text citation for a reader to locate its source in the Reference list without difficulty.
Example:
First time
Libraries: Gateways to Knowledge (National Knowledge Commission [NKC], 2007)
Subsequent times
Libraries: Gateways to Knowledge (NKC, 2007)

e) Works with no Author: When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work’s title (omitting any initial articles) as your text reference, capitalizing each word. Place the title within quotation marks if it refers to an article, chapter of a book, or Web page. Italicize the title if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report.
Example:
Twenty one public libraries act (“Public Library Legislation”, 2014)
Twenty one public libraries act (UGC NET Guide, 2014)

f) Works with Anonymous Authors: Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date.
Example:
Twenty one library act functioning in India (Anonymous, 2014)

g) Citing a Source Found in Another Source: If you find great information being quoted or paraphrased somewhere, it’s well worth your effort to track down the original source so you can read it for yourself and therefore cite it directly. So, you should avoid secondary sources when possible. It’s only okay to cite a secondary source when you’ve exhausted the options for finding the original work.
            When referring to another work mentioned in the source you are reading, give the author’s name of the original source in your text. Cite the secondary source in the parentheses using the words, “as cited in.” Include the secondary source in the references, but not the original work.
Example:
In his Email to his colleagues, Professor A. P. J. Abdul Kalam argued that …… (as cited in Barman, 2010).

3. References: Resources cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source.

3.1 Basic Guideline for References
a) Alphabetical Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors’ last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list.
b) & for Multiple Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word “and” when listing multiple authors of a single work. e.g. Smith, J. D., & Jones, M.
c) Capitalization of First Word: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title.
d) p. or pp. for Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals including newspapers, encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books.
e) Use Hanging Indentation: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a “hanging indent”.
f) Titles of Books and Journals are Italics: It is appropriate to use italics for the tiles of books and journals. In case of handwritten, kindly underline it.
g) Use Stable Internet Address: A stable Internet address should be included and should direct the reader as close as possible to the actual work. If the work has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), use this. If there is no DOI or similar handle, use a stable URL. If the URL is not stable, as is often the case with website, online newspapers, some subscription-based databases and so on, use the home page of the site you retrieved the work from.
h) Published or Retrieve Date: If the work is a finalized version published and dated, as in the case of a journal article, the date within the main body of the citation is enough. However, if the work is not dated and/or is subject to change, as in the case of an online encyclopedia article, wiki, etc. include the date that you retrieved the information.

3.2 Examples of References
a) Articles from Print Journal/Magazine: The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is rendered in title case and italicized
Example:
Barman, B. (2011). Classification of library documents by using the Web. Indian Journal of Information Sources and Services, 1(1), 50-55.

b) Articles from Online Journal / Magazine with DOI
Example:
Barman, B., & Baishya, K. (2011, June 21). Classification of library documents by using the Web. World Libraries, 20(1).  doi: 10.4018/barma.201

c) Articles from Online Journal / Magazine without DOI
Example:
Barman, B. (2011). Classification of library documents by using the Web. World Libraries, 20(1).  Retrieved from http://www.worlib.org/vol20no1/barmanprint_v20n1.shtml

d) Printed Books with Single Author
Example:
Barman, B. (2012). Library and Information Science: UGC NET guide (2nd ed.). Guwahati: DVS Publisher.

e) Printed Books with Double Author
Example:
Barman, B. & Baishya, K. (2012). Library and Information Science: UGC NET Guide (2nd ed.). Guwahati: DVS Publisher.

f) Printed Edited Book by Single Author
Example:
Lahkar, N. (Ed.). (2008). Prof Alaka Buragohain festschrift volume: Changing library scenario in digital era. Guwahati: Assam Library Association.

g) Printed Edited Book by Double Author
Example:
Lahkar, N., & Singh, S.K. (Eds.). (2008). Prof Alaka Buragohain festschrift volume: Changing library scenario in digital era. Guwahati: Assam Library Association.

h) Chapter from an Edited Book
Example:
Barman, B. & Lahkar, N. (2008). Blog: A major study and practicing area for LIS professionals. In Narendra Lahkar (Ed.), Prof Alaka Buragohain Festschrift Volume: Changing Library Scenario in Digital Era (pp. 21-32). Guwahati: Assam Library Association.

i) Encyclopedia Article with Author
Example:
Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In L. T. Lorimer (Ed.), The  encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 24, pp. 390-392). Danbury, CT: Grolier.

j) Article from an Online Encyclopedia / Dictionary without Author
Example:
Containerization. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 6, 2018, from http://search.eb.com

k) Published Conference Proceedings
Example:
Lahkar, N. (Ed.) (2007). Rural libraries in the North East India: Problems and prospects: Proceeding of the National seminar on problems and prospects of rural libraries in North East India, Guwhati, 28-29 March. Guwahati: Central Reference Library.

l) Paper from Published Conference Proceedings
Example:
Barman, B. (2007). Scenario of rural library movement in Assam. In Narendra Lahkar (Ed.), Rural libraries in the North East India: Problems and prospects: Proceeding of the National seminar on problems and prospects of rural libraries in North East India, Guwhati, 28-29 March, (pp. 43-64). Guwahati: Central Reference Library.

m) Paper Presented at Conference
Example:
Barman, B. (2007). Scenario of rural library movement in Assam. Paper presented at National seminar on problems and prospects of rural libraries in North East India, Guwhati, 28-29 March.

n) Article from Newspaper with Author
Example:
Barman, B. (2018, April 9). Why you should be a librarian. The Assam Tribune, p. 4.

o) Article from Newspaper without Author
Example:
Why you should be a librarian (2018, April 9). The Assam Tribune, p. 4.

p) Master’s or M.Phil. Dissertation or Ph.D. Thesis
Example:
Barman, B. (2011). Management of web resources in library and information science (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Gauhati University, Guwahati.

q) Professional Website with Author
Example:
Barman, B. (2008). About LIS Links. Retrieved February 3, 2018, from LIS Links Website: http://lislinks.com/about-lis-links

r) Professional Website without Author
Example:
How many states are having library legislation in India (2008). Retrieved February 3, 2018, from LIS Links website: http://lislinks.com/forum/topics/how-many-states-are-having

4. Generation of Citations: The best way to do citations is to do it manually i.e. by reading through the manual of standard citations and then rendering it while writing the article. However, there may be occasion when you need to change the citation style or you need to use it repetitively or you lack sufficient time to go through the manual of the standard citation styles. In such cases one can take the help of citation generation softwares like Refworks, EndNote, Citation machine (http://citationmachine.net), EasyBib (http://www.easybib.com/), Microsoft Word (under References tab) and so on.
a) Citation Machine: Citation machine (http://citationmachine.net) helps students and professional researchers to properly credit the information that they use. It helps to build citation in MLA 7th Ed, APA 6th Ed, Turabian, Chicago format.
b) EasyBib: EasyBib (http://www.easybib.com/) support the APA, MLA, Turabian and Chicago citation styles.
c) Microsoft Word: The MS Word’s References tab can be used to automatically cite as per APA, Chicago, MLA, Turabian, and so on.

5. Conclusion: The APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources; however, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format.
            In this write-up rendering of a few commonly used sources are shown as examples. If you need a detailed list of all sources, or additional examples and more detailed information about APA citation style, kindly refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.



How to Cite this Article?
APA Citation, 7th Ed.:  Barman, B. (2020). A comprehensive book on Library and Information Science. New Publications.
Chicago 16th Ed.:  Barman, Badan. A Comprehensive Book on Library and Information Science. Guwahati: New Publications, 2020.
MLA Citation 8th Ed:  Barman, Badan. A Comprehensive Book on Library and Information Science. New Publications, 2020.

Badan BarmanBadan Barman at present working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Library and Information Science, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India. He is the creator of the LIS Links (http://www.lislinks.com) - India’s most popular social networking website for Library and Information Science professionals. He also created the UGC NET Guide (http://www.netugc.com) and LIS Study (http://www.lisstudy.com) website.

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