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Domain Naming System (DNS)


1. Introduction: The Internet protocol number is the numeric location of a particular computer so that it is an identifiable machine to all the other computers connected to the Internet. The IP address is a 32 bit number divided into four octets and these octets are written in dotted decimal format eg. 11.245.196.212. Each octets numbers lie in between o and 255.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. DNS is an essential component of the functionality of the Internet. A domain name for the website is a must. Domain name is alphabetical form or easy to remember form of an IP address that is assigned to you in the form of a website with some Top Level Domain (TLD). DNS translates the numerical IP addresses like 68.73.129.32 to easily memorized domain names like lislinks.com needed for the purpose of locating computer services and devices worldwide. Domain Name Server (DNS) is the host. If it will not host and resolve the DNS, it will display an error like DNS address not found. If the domain you would like to purchase doesn’t have much demand, then the annual price of a domain name will comes in between Rs.300 to Rs.1000.
It may be noted that people who design and develop their website by using Blogger (http://www.blogger.com), Google Sites (http://sites.google.com) and such other platform, a free sub-domain is provided by the company but this usually isn’t ideal for businesses and should probably be avoided and to host it in a custom domain, the developer need to purchase it from them or from any other company.

2. Criteria for Choosing a Domain Name: In choosing the DNS, the following points should be considered
a) Represent your Website: DNS should represent the website;
b) Short Name is Better: DNS should be as short as far as possible;
c) Mnemonic Value: DNS should have a memorable or mnemonic value.
d) Globally available Domain: Look for a domain name that is available across all social media channels, so that you can pick up that name everywhere and use it for branding.
e) Top Level Domains: The top level domain should represent the goal and objective of the organization. There are also lots of other TLD and you have to choose the right one that reflects your website’s mission and vision.  The age of the web site’s domain name (i.e. the date at which each domain was registered) sometimes influences the rank of a website. The older domain names will rank more highly than newer domain names for the same content. So if possible, older domain name should be chosen than that of the new or emerging ones.

3. Types of Domain Names: Domain names are organized in subordinate levels subdomains of the DNS root domain, which is nameless. The first-level set of domain names are the Top-Level Domains (TLDs). A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet. It indicates the purpose of the institute / organization associated with the website. The TLD includes the generic top-level domains (gTLDs), such as .com, .info, .net, .edu, and .org, and the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs), such as .in, .au, etc. Below the top-level domains in the domain name hierarchy are the Second-Level Domain (SLD) names. These are the names directly to the left of .com, .net, and other top-level domains. As an example, in the domain gauhati.ac.in, ac is the second-level domain. The third level domains are written immediately to the left of a second-level domain. There can be fourth- and fifth-level domains, and so on, with virtually no limitation.
a) generic Top-Level Domains (gTLD): generic Top-Level Domains uses three or more characters and can be registered by anyone. The .com Top Level Domains (TLD) intended for use by for-profit business entities, .org intended for use by non-profit organizations.
For example
.com: Commercial entities;
.net: Network resource providers;
.org: Nonprofit organization.
b) country-code Top-Level Domains (ccTLD): Two-letter domains established for countries or territories. With some historical exceptions, the code for any territory is the same as its two-letter ISO 3166 code. Outside the United States a code is included to which country a URL belongs. Though United States also have a domain code (US) yet in reality it is used in rare instances on the Internet. It is assumed that if there is no geographic code then the domain is located within the United States. Sometimes, to register a ccTLD, you have to be a resident or a business owner in that particular county.
For example:
.au:      Australia;
.ca:       Canada;
.in:       India;
.va:      Vatican, etc.
c) sponsored Top-Level Domain (sTLD): A sponsored TLD is a specialized top-level domain that has a sponsor representing a specific community served by the domain. The communities involved are based on ethnic, geographical, professional, technical or other theme concepts proposed by private agencies or organizations that establish and enforce rules restricting the eligibility of registrants to use the TLD.
For example
.asia: Companies, organisations and individuals in the Asia-Pacific region sponsored by DotAsia Organisation
.edu: Post-secondary institutions accredited by an agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Education and are sponsored by EDUCAUSE.
.gov: United States Government and are sponsored by General Services Administration.
The subdomain is a part of a higher ranked domain name in the DNS hierarchy. Example of a subdomain is circular.lislinks.com. Some popular web services like Blogger and others offer subdomain registration.

4. Domain Registrars: A domain name can be an extremely valuable asset and having the right domain registrar is very much important. The registration of the domain names is usually administered by domain name registrars who sell their services to the public. You should register your website’s domain name through an Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) accredited registrar. There are hundreds of different registrars out there all vying for your business and each one offer a different set of services and perks, so finding a package that suits your needs can sometimes be a time-consuming endeavor.
According to Webhosting.info (https://webhosting.info/domain-registrar-statistics/), GoDaddy (http://www.godaddy.com), Network Solutions (https://www.networksolutions.com), Tucows Domains Inc. (http://www.tucowsdomains.com) and eNom (http://www.enom.com) and are the top most popular domain name registrar companies of the World. Google Domains (https://domains.google) is a new addition to the existing competitive market in the segment. So whenever you think of purchasing a domain it is better to go with them to get the best possible service.
a) Google Domains (https://domains.google): Google Domains is an internet domain name registration service offered by Google. Google Domains offers domain registration including private domain registration, DNS hosting, DNSSEC, Dynamic DNS, domain forwarding, and email forwarding. It also offers one-click DNS configuration that connects the domains with Blogger, Google Sites, Squarespace, Wix.com, Weebly and Shopify. The service is accredited by ICANN.
b) GoDaddy (https://in.godaddy.com/): GoDaddy Inc. is a publicly traded Internet domain registrar and web hosting company founded in 1997 by Baltimore, Maryland entrepreneur Bob Parsons. Besides Domain, GoDaddy also sells Website Builder, Web Security, Online Marketing, Email and Microsoft Office.
c) Network Solutions, LLC  (https://www.networksolutions.com): Network Solutions, LLC  is an American-based technology company. In addition to being a domain name registrar, Network Solutions provides web services such as web hosting, website design and online marketing, including search engine optimization and pay per click management.
d) Tucows Domains Inc. (http://www.tucowsdomains.com): Tucows Domains Inc. is a publicly traded Internet services and telecommunications company, headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and incorporated in Pennsylvania, United States. Besides acting as a domain registrar company, it continues to host its namesake directory of shareware and freeware software downloads.
e) eNom (http://www.enom.com): Enom, Inc. is a domain name registrar and Web hosting company that also sells other products closely tied to domain names, such as SSL certificates, e-mail services, and Website building software. Enom was founded in 1997 in Kirkland, Washington operating as a wholesale business, allowing resellers to sell domains and other services under their own branding.

5. Criteria for Selecting a Domain Registrar: Kindly remember that buying and hosting a domain is not a tough job but to choose the right domain registrar and right web hosting provider at right cost is the toughest one. The domain register can be evaluated based on the following points-
a) Convenient of Payment: Does the domain register provide a payment option which is convenient to you?
b) Renewal Fees: What will be subsequent domain renewal fees per year? Is the price justifiable?
c) Fees for Premium Services: Kindly check out the premium whois privacy services in the name of “privacy services”, “whois masking”, “private registration” and so on.
d) Webhosting Services: Many people choose to purchase their domain names form the same hosting provider that hosts their website. In fact, hosting providers often provide a discount to users who do and it should prefer to manage the domain easily.
e) Transfer-Out Fees: In selecting a domain registrar kindly check their “transfer-out” fees - the fees that need to be paid in the event of transferring your domain to other registrar.
f) Other Value Added Services: Does the domain register provide Email hosting, SSL certification and such others that may be needed for your website in future.

6. DNS Settings: Following are the mostly used components of a DNS Settings
a) A Record: a means address. This means that a request from the browser to the domain will be directed to which IP address of the server. The A record maps a name to one or more IP addresses.
b) CNAME: CNAME stands for Canonical Name. CNAME records can be used to alias one name to another. For example, if you have a server where you keep all of your documents online, it might normally be accessed through article.lislinks.com. You may also want to access it through newsletter.lislinks.com. One way to make this possible is to add a CNAME record that points newsletter.lislinks.com to article.lislinks.com.
c) ALIAS: An ALIAS record is a virtual record type that is created to provide CNAME-like behavior on apex domains. An alias is a synonym for the host. For example, if your domain is circular.com and you want it to point to a host name like circular.lislinks.com
d) MX: MX stands for Mail eXchange. MX Records tell email delivery agents where they should deliver your email.

7. Conclusion: If you ready to pay then you can choose any name for your web address, provided that address is not pick up by anyone else. One can check to see if a particular name is already pick up by someone or not at any domain name registrar companies like Google Domains, GoDaddy and so on. Ones the developer finds a name that is not already taken, he / she should register it as soon as possible. Now-a-days, you can pay the fees of a domain with lots of options like Internet Banking, Debit Card, Credit Card, PayPal and so on.



How to Cite this Article?
APA Citation, 7th Ed.:  Barman, B. (2020). A comprehensive book on Library and Information Science. New Publications.
Chicago 16th Ed.:  Barman, Badan. A Comprehensive Book on Library and Information Science. Guwahati: New Publications, 2020.
MLA Citation 8th Ed:  Barman, Badan. A Comprehensive Book on Library and Information Science. New Publications, 2020.

Badan BarmanBadan Barman at present working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Library and Information Science, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India. He is the creator of the LIS Links (http://www.lislinks.com) - India’s most popular social networking website for Library and Information Science professionals. He also created the UGC NET Guide (http://www.netugc.com) and LIS Study (http://www.lisstudy.com) website.

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