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1. Facebook: Facebook (http://www.facebook.com) is a social networking service and website launched in February 4, 2004, operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc. It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes.

2. Facilities Available at Facebook: The following facilities are available for the user over facebook.
a) Profile Creation: After registering in Facebook, users can create profile revealing information about them and receive notifications of their Facebook friends’ activities. The personal profile shows their posts and content, timeline-a chronological feed of a user’s stories, including status updates, photos, interactions with apps and events. The layout let users add a cover photo. Facebook introduced Usernames feature allowing users to choose a unique nickname used in the URL for their personal profile, for easier sharing.
b) Post Information: Users can post text, photos and multimedia which are shared with any other users that have agreed to be their friend or with a different privacy setting with any reader.
c) Apps Centre: Users can also use various embedded apps available in the Facebook that help users find games and other applications.
d) Facebook Page: Facebook launched Facebook Pages for brands and celebrities to interact with their fanbase. Users can create Facebook page or receive notifications from Facebook pages they follow.
e) Facebook Groups: Users can create groups or join common-interest groups.
Events: Users can create events and it shows upcoming events near the user and other things to do that fit their interest.
f) Fundraisers: Facebook fundraisers make it easy to support friends, family and the causes that are important to the user. No fees for donations to most nonprofit fundraisers and low fees for personal fundraisers.
g) News Feed: News Feed appears on every user’s homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events and friends’ birthdays.
h) Marketplace: Users can buy and sell items or services on Marketplace.
i) Watch: Facebook Watch is a video-on-demand service operated by Facebook, Inc. Original shows and popular videos in different categories from producers and creators users love are shown there.
j) Photos: The Photos application allows users to upload albums and photos. Each album can contain 200 photos.  Privacy settings apply to individual albums. Users can tag or label friends in a photo. The friend receives a notification about the tag with a link to the photo.
k) Instant Articles: Facebook in association with major news portals launched Instant Articles to provide news on the Facebook news feed without leaving the site.
l) Like Button: The like button, stylized as a thumbs up icon enables users to easily interact with status updates, comments, photos and videos, links shared by friends, and advertisements. Once clicked by a user, the designated content is more likely to appear in friends’ News Feeds. The button displays the number of other users who have liked the content. Facebook expanded Like into Reactions, choosing among five pre-defined emotions, including Love, Haha, Wow, Sad or Angry.
m) Comment: The user can comment on a status update, uploaded photo or multimedia in the individual users, pages or in group. Even user can discuss anything under a post in a threaded-style format.
n) Instant Messaging / Messenger: Facebook Messenger is an instant messaging service and software application. It began as Facebook Chat and later on revamped and eventually became a standalone mobile app, while remaining part of the user page on browsers. Complementing regular conversations, Messenger lets users make one-to-one and group voice and video calls.
o) Mentions: Mentions, which lets users in group conversations type @ to give a particular user a notification.
p) Hashtags: Hashtags # turn topics and phrases into clickable links in the posts on personal timeline or Page. This helps people find posts about topics they’re interested in. To make a hashtag, one should write # (the number sign) along with a topic or phrase and add it to the post.
q) Following: Users can Follow content posted by other users without needing to friend them.
r) Privacy Controls: Users were given more privacy settings by Facebook, it enables users to control access to individual posts and their profile through privacy settings. The user’s name and profile picture (if applicable) are public.

3. Why Facebook is Important: The following are some of the important points for which Facebook is important for the libraries.
a) Marketing Power House: Facebook is the marketing powerhouse. It is the place where more people meet online than any other place. Facebook is one of the most visited site on the Web (as per Alexa ranking). The potential audience over Facebook is enormous – way more than the circulation of the largest newspapers and magazines.
b) Networking: One can use Facebook to connect with students, co-workers and old co-workers to keep the workplace networking going.
c) Engagement: Facebook engagement has been centered on the Like button. The Facebook Like button is the easiest and quickest way someone can show appreciation of a post or a Page. When someone like the page, it will start appearing in their News Feed. This is the key purpose of the Like button: by clicking Like, users are saying they are happy to see the page’s content in their News Feed, potentially leading to more engagement.
d) Branding: Facebook can be used as a medium for creating brand awareness. It provides brand exposure to a potentially new audience and gives organizations the opportunity to position themselves in new and unique ways.
e) Drive Web Traffic: As a Facebook page grows its fan base, traffic to the library website will increase. Facebook pages also appear in Universal Search Results.

4. Potential Use of Facebook in the Libraries: There are two primary ways for institution and libraries to market on Facebook.
a) Facebook Group: The first is through Facebook Groups. Groups are more focused on bringing together groups of people who share common interests and sharing information among themselves.
b) Facebook Page: The second is through Facebook Pages. Facebook pages are like personal facebook account for celebrities, brands or businesses, Pages are places where users can interact around and with a particular brand or product. Facebook pages are typically the best option for organizations to promote themselves on Facebook. Each profile can moderate multiple Business pages.

5. How to Auto post to Facebook Page or Group: Considering the large user base of Facebook, it is recommended to update Facebook page or Facebook group on Facebook itself by manual means. The manual means have some advantages over the auto posting features like
a) High Engagement: Facebook uses an algorithm called EdgeRank to determine which updates are shown in your fans’ news feeds. One thing that EdgeRank has the potential of doing is lowering the value of an update from a third-party tool and prioritizing updates that are made directly on Facebook. This means that pages with updates from third-party apps may not get as much engagement as that of manual post.
b) Users Can Hide Third-Party Apps: Facebook users have the choice to hide updates made by third-party apps from their news feed entirely. If a friend, subscription, or page annoys a user with updates from a particular third-party app, that user might hide any updates from that app altogether. This means that they would never see your page’s updates from that app.
c) Updates Lumped Together: You also have to worry about updates from third-party tool getting clumped together. This doesn’t happen with all apps, but it does with some, especially if there are an over-abundance of updates from one particular app. This will likely to lead less interaction with your updates when people come to your Facebook page.
However, when lack of time is the concern; organizations, businesses or libraries can prefer to use a social media management tool for the sake of productivity and ease of use as updating Facebook page using a third-party tool would be better than not updating the page at all. The following are some of the social media management tools that can help you to auto update your Facebook page or group.
a) HootSuite: HootSuite (https://hootsuite.com) allows you to schedule and publish updates across multiple social networks including Facebook (page and group), Twitter, Mixi, LinkedIn, Ping.fm, WordPress, MySpace, and Foursquare automatically. HootSuite also allows you to add RSS feeds, Instagram, YouTube, Blogger, Flickr, Tumblr, StumbleUpon to your account to update your social networks when new posts are available from your own blog as well as others. You can use HootSuite for free with up to three social profiles.
b) Buffer: Buffer (https://buffer.com) is another wonderful tool that can help you in auto-posting to your social media accounts. You can post updates or schedule posts through the use of the Buffer dashboard. Updates can be sent to your Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn accounts. From within the Buffer app, you can set up ‘buffering patterns’ (auto-sharing schedules) for different days of the week. This means that you can have a different posting schedule on Monday, a different one on Tuesday and so forth. Again, one of the most useful features of the Buffer app is the content suggestion tool that automatically tells you what you can post to your social networks.
c) Zapier: Zapier (https://zapier.com) is an automation tool that works on individual automated tasks that are known as Zaps. For instance, a single Zap could be created for monitoring a particular YouTube channel. Zaps are generally used to gather content and then automatically publish the found content on your social media profile. The app itself supports over 250 services and you can create Zaps according to your own requirements and preferences as well.
d) Dlvr.it: Dlvr.it (https://dlvrit.com) is an auto-posting tool that enables you to add your RSS feed to be updated on your Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Tumblr, StatusNet, and MySpace accounts so that every time you publish a new post, it will be added to the social accounts you specified. There is a handy feature for filtering out content that you share as well – it helps when you need to find content from specific categories or authors only. It is a simple and offers a free basic version to use to get your latest blog posts delivered to your social media accounts.
e) SocialOomph:  SocialOomph (https://www.socialoomph.com) is a social media management tool with added facility of being queue reservoir for RSS, Blog, Facebook, LinkedIn, Mastodon, Pinterest, Reddit, StockTwits and Twitter profiles. The app supports evergreen content that does not go out of date. When your social media presence increases, you get fans and followers that will never have seen most of your content – which is why it is important to continue promoting this content. When you add evergreen content to your queue, you can specify how many times you want it to be shared and how often. The good thing about Social Oomph is that it automatically creates variations of the content to ensure that it does not look like you are sending out the same post every time.

6. Problems with Facebook: Facebook involve in controversies over user privacy (as with the Cambridge Analytica data scandal), political manipulation (as with the 2016 U.S. elections), psychological effects such as addiction and low self-esteem, and objectionable, including fake news, conspiracy theories, and copyright infringement.

7. Conclusion: As of December 2019, Facebook has more than 250,0000000 users. Facebook is about interacting with people you know, staying in touch, posting status updates and looking at pictures, multimedia. Users may create a personal profile, add other users as friends, and exchange messages, including automatic notifications when they update their profile, create a page for business or other purpose, follow page created by others, create group and join groups which are created by others. It is good platform to be considered for marketing a product or service of a library as most of the users can be seen there.



How to Cite this Article?
APA Citation, 7th Ed.:  Barman, B. (2020). A comprehensive book on Library and Information Science. New Publications.
Chicago 16th Ed.:  Barman, Badan. A Comprehensive Book on Library and Information Science. Guwahati: New Publications, 2020.
MLA Citation 8th Ed:  Barman, Badan. A Comprehensive Book on Library and Information Science. New Publications, 2020.

Badan BarmanBadan Barman at present working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Library and Information Science, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India. He is the creator of the LIS Links (http://www.lislinks.com) - India’s most popular social networking website for Library and Information Science professionals. He also created the UGC NET Guide (http://www.netugc.com) and LIS Study (http://www.lisstudy.com) website.

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